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Essay on Watershed management in English


The watershed approach is adopted as a national strategy for integrated and comprehensive development of drought-prone and rain-fed areas. Rain-fed areas usually cover areas under arid, semi-arid, and dry-humid zones and constitute nearly 67% of the net cultivated area.

There are a lot of major problems at these places. some of them are:

  1. Low and erratic rainfall leading to frequent droughts.
  2. Degraded soils with poor native fertility.
  3. Low crop productivity due to poor native fertility.
  4. Shortage of fodder affecting livestock productivity.
  5. Complex socio-economic base and poor credit facilities.

Watershed is not a technology but a concept which integrates conservation, management, and budgeting of rainwater through simple but discrete hydrological units.

Watershed can be conceived as a geographical unit of land that drains into a common point. It is carved out through the interaction of rainwater with land and comprises of arable and non-arable lands and natural drainage lines.

The objectives of watershed management :

The following are the various objectives of watershed management are:-

  • Conservation, up-gradation, and optimum utilization of natural resources – land, water, and vegetation in an integrated manner.
  • Generation of huge employment opportunities in the backward rain-fed areas to ensure livelihood security, particularly the poorest section of the rural people.
  • Improvement of production environment through scientific management of land and rainwater. A certain network of runoff management structures for recharge of groundwater, and recycling for irrigation and domestic purposes.
  • Promotion of social forestry and horticultural activity on all suitable areas of land.

It is a process that guides the delivery of goods and services without harming the sources of soil, water and other resources.

Essay on Watershed management in English
Essay on Watershed management in English

It consists of three physical sectors:-

  1. Arable and cultivated lands, which are privately owned.
  2. non-arable lands including village and grazing areas, cultivable wastelands, and barren and un-cultivable lands.
  3. Natural drainage lines.

Watershed is the area where water flows. The slopes of the Himalayas are very useful watersheds. Check dams are built on these slopes of the Himalayas.

The soil or land between the watersheds on the slopes serves for water retention and soil retention and is converted into farmland.

Farmers can be seen cultivating pineapples, apples, and grapes on the slopes of the Himalayas. This type of slope cultivation with rigid boundary walls is most commonly found in the Himalayan mountains. This will prevent landslides.

Impact of Watershed management:

The watershed approach improves soil condition and water condition in the area.

In the successfully implemented watershed, crop yields as well as crop intensity increased.

FAQ- Questions on Watershed management:

What is a watershed?

Ans:- A watershed is an area of land that feeds all the water drains to a common waterway, such as a stream, lake, wetland, oceans.

How many watersheds are there in India?

Ans:- There are 3237 watersheds in India. A national level of the atlas been created in India. The entire river systems of the country have been divided into 6 Water Resources Region, and further divided into 35 basins and 112 catchments. The catchments are divided into 500 sub-catchments and 3237 watersheds.

What is the main purpose of watershed management?

The main objective of watershed management is to benefit the human race as well as to protect the soil, water, and plant species. Watershed management is planned with the benefit of the environment, society and the economy of the country in mind.

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