500+words essay on Watershed management in English
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Watershed approach is adopted as a national strategy for an integrated and comprehensive development of drought prone and rain-fed areas. Rain fed areas usually cover areas under arid, semi-arid and dry-humid zones and constitute nearly 67% of the net cultivated area.
The major problem of these areas are:-
- Low and erratic rainfall leading to frequent droughts.
- Degraded soils with poor native fertility.
- Low crop productivity due to poor native fertility.
- Shortage of fodder affecting livestock productivity.
- Complex socio-economic base and poor credit facilities.
Watershed is not a technology but a concept which integrates conservation, management, and budgeting of rainwater through simple but discrete hydrological units.
Watershed can be conceived as a geographical unit of land that drains into a common point. It is carved out through the interaction of rainwater with land and comprises of arable and non-arable lands and natural drainage lines.
The objectives of watershed management :
The following are the various objectives of watershed management are:-
- Conservation, up-gradation, and optimum utilization of natural resources- land, water, and vegetation in an integrated manner.
- Generation of huge employment opportunities in the backward rain-fed areas to ensure livelihood security, particularly the poorest section of the rural people.
- Improvement of production environment through scientific management of land and rainwater, a certain network of runoff management structures for recharge of groundwater, and recycling for irrigation and domestic purposes.
- Promotion of social forestry and horticultural activity on all suitable areas of land.
It is a process of guiding and organizing land and other resources in a watershed to provide goods and services without adversely affecting the soil, water and other natural resources.
It consists of three physical sectors:-
- Arable and cultivated lands, which are privately owned.
- non-arable lands including village and grazing areas, cultivable wastelands, and barren and un-cultivable lands.
- Natural drainage lines.
A watershed is an area located for water flow. The slopes of Himalayas are very useful watersheds. Check dams are constructed in these slopes of the Himalayas. The soil or land in between the watersheds in the slopes is worked up for water retention and soil retention and converted into agricultural lands. We find the cultivation of pineapples, apples, and grapes on the Himalayan mountain slopes. This kind of slope cultivation with firmly built boundary walls can prevent landslides which are very common in the Himalayan mountains.
Impact of Watershed management:
The watershed approach improves the soil condition and water status in the area. In a successfully implemented watershed, the cropping intensity has gone up along with yield. The major shift in cropping patterns in favor of improved varieties and overall ecological improvement has been observed. The optimum size of the watershed is generally 500 hectares.
FAQ- Questions on Watershed management:
1. What is a watershed?
Ans:- A watershed is an area of land that feeds all the water drains to a common waterway, such as a stream, lake, wetland, oceans.
2. How many watersheds are there in India?
Ans:- There are 3237 watersheds in India.
A national level of the atlas been created in India. The entire river systems of the country have been divided into 6 Water Resources Region, and further divided into 35 basins and 112 catchments. The catchments are divided into 500 sub-catchments and 3237 watersheds.
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